Paraphilias: How They Develop And Possible Treatments


As a complex human experience, sexuality manifests in patterns unique to each person, deriving from the way fantasy imagery merges with his or her sexual and emotional development. — Katherine Ramsland Ph.D.

There is a great deal of controversy associated with deviant sexual behaviors and preferences. The definition of what is normal over aberrant or disordered is partly dependent on the cultural view of acceptability. Paraphilia is defined as a strong sexual attraction to an object or people other than genital stimulation. Having an unusual taste regarding sexual behavior doesn’t automatically result in having a paraphilic disorder; it needs to cause distress and threatens the psyche of the self, others, and the community.

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Five Interesting Mental Illness Syndromes



The human mind is fascinating. The magnitude of creativity, ideas, thoughts, and memories it can process is endless. Due to this wonder of the mind, it is a subject of many research and studies most especially on topics of mental health, geniuses, childhood development disorders and many more. People are familiar with mental disorders that commonly affect the population; however, some syndrome and disorders are rare but quite interesting to look into.

Stockholm Syndrome

The condition is characterized by psychological respond of the victim towards the victimizer. The victim exhibits signs of loyalty, sympathy and even voluntary compliance to the suspects. This is commonly discussed in cases of hostage abduction, but there are instances where the syndrome was observed in rape, and spousal and child abuse cases. The syndrome was first seen in 1973. It occurred in a bank robbery in Stockholm, Sweden. The hostage exhibits the classic signs of the syndrome towards their hostage-takers to the point of defending and refusing to testify against them. Another well-known example of Stockholm syndrome is when Patty Hearst, a daughter of a millionaire was kidnapped in 1974; later, joined her kidnapper in an organized robbery. As any management of severe trauma, psychotherapy and supportive modalities are utilized as well as addressing the co-morbidity conditions if there is any.

Professionals have expanded the definition of Stockholm syndrome to include any relationship in which victims of abuse develop a strong, loyal attachment to the perpetrators of abuse. Some of the populations affected with this condition include concentration camp prisoners, prisoners of war, abused children, incest survivors, victims of domestic violence, cult members, and people in toxic work or church environments. — Sharie Stines, PsyD

Cotard Delusion


The delusion is also referred to as walking corpse syndrome. The person believes that he/she is dead or do not exist. Also, some people with this condition think that they have lost all their blood and internal organs; in short, living zombies. Due to this belief, they don’t crave for food or water since it is not essential for a dead person.

Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy

This disorder happens when the primary caregiver acts like he/she is caring for the sick individual most often young children when in fact, the child as well. Usually, people with this condition fabricates stories about the symptoms exhibited of the supposedly ill child, alters diagnostic tests, falsify medical records and to the point of inducing symptoms through various methods like starvation, suffocation, poisoning, and exposure to infection. These are commonly experienced by parents or adult children of elderly patients. The fabrication is usually done for sympathy and attention rather than for financial gain. Management often requires the inclusion of social worker, foster care organizations, law enforcement, and health care providers.

Long-term studies of children with disorganized attachment have found that, as parents, they often become either compulsive or controlling caregivers. — Joni E Johnston Psy.D.

Reduplicative Paramnesia

It is composed of a delusional belief that location has been duplicated or exists in different places simultaneously. Others believe that it has been relocated to another site. It is merely a delusion of doubles like Capgras syndrome but only refers to a place. The term was first used by a neurologist Arnold Pick in 1903 to explain the condition of a patient with suspected Alzheimer.

Stendhal Syndrome



The condition was named after the 19th century French author Henri-Marie Beyle (1783–1842) – better known by his penname ‘Stendhal’ – who at the age of 34 years (in 1817) described in detail his negative experiences (in his book Naples and Florence: A Journey from Milan to Reggio) of viewing Florentine art of the Italian Renaissance (and hence it’s alternative name as Florence Syndrome). — Mark D. Griffiths Ph.D.

The person feels dizzy, increased heart rate, hallucinate or even faint because they find a place too beautiful or if too much art surrounds them. There are intense anticipation and longing to be in that specific position that when it happens in real life, the experience can be too overwhelming for the person; thus, exhibits signs associated with Stendhal Syndrome.

Alcohol Withdrawal: Getting Out Is Never That Easy At All



“From now on, I’ll have to stop drinking!” Sounds good to hear. It’s like giving you another chance of having a healthy lifestyle. However, how positive as it may appear, getting through it requires mental toughness and self-determination of calling it quits for good. Just when you decided to stop drinking excessive alcohol for whatever reasons you may have, comes along the journey that you must go through which may seem unbearable that you might even think of backing out.

Fear of judgement is a powerful deterrent to treatment for individuals struggling with a substance use disorder of any sort, including alcohol. — Jennifer Smith, PhD

Alcohol withdrawal does not just happen overnight. In fact, there are three stages that a person may go through before completely becoming alcohol- free. The first 48 hours of detoxification is the most challenging part because this is when withdrawal symptoms start to peak.

Taking alcohol induces relaxation as it subdues the fight-or-flight reaction of the brain, so by the time that a person started to stop drinking, the body slowly process alcohol substance out from the circulatory the system. If you are dependent on alcohol, the effect of alcohol on the brain’s chemical balance may lead to an abrupt stimulation of the fight or flight mode. This can result in alcohol withdrawal syndrome; worse than a hang-over, hence, understanding the stages of alcohol withdrawal will shed light on what is expected when someone is experiencing withdrawal syndrome.

Mild Form


You believe your negative thoughts to be true, rather than filtering them for more objective realities. As a result, your negative perceptions shape your perception of an event or interaction. — Kim Grevler, LCSW

The early stage of alcohol withdrawal occurs after 8 hours or more not taking alcohol. Commonly, after 12 hours of not consuming alcohol, tremors start to appear, and when coupled with anxiety the condition might become worse. Aside from tremors, a person might also be experiencing moderately minor symptoms which might take up to one to three days or even. The symptoms will vary according to physical or psychological characteristics:


  • Nervousness
  • Feeling down
  • Short-tempered
  • Impatience
  • Mood swings
  • Poor concentration
  • Fatigue
  • Dilated pupils
  • Nightmares
  • Headaches
  • Increased heartbeat
  • Insomnia
  • Loss of craving
  • Unsteady limbs
  • Queasiness
  • Gagging
  • Excessive sweating



Severe Form

People who have been dependent for alcohol for a more extended period might experience severe withdrawal symptoms marked by a sudden increase in blood pressure and hallucination which may appear between 12 to 24 hours of stopping alcohol intake. Symptoms of the early stage might also be apparent at this stage and might worsen during this time. Withdrawal-related seizures are other possible symptoms that may appear. The seizure is known as a generalized tonic-clonic seizure which presents with the stiffness of the body, uncontrolled bowel and bladder control, the difficulty of breathing, jaw or teeth-gritting and uncontrolled tongue or cheek biting.


Without filtering what you say, you might start getting a sense of the thoughts and feelings behind your presenting problem. — Charles Rosen, LCSW

Treatment for alcohol withdrawal usually takes place as an inpatient admission to monitor the changes and safety of the person. A person can have severe complications if this not monitored by a healthcare provider. As the person undergoes the process of detoxification, the physiological aspect takes primary importance. The doctor may still include the giving of alcohol in small amounts so as not to entirely deprive the body of the stimulatory effects of alcohol. As the process continues, the limitation of alcohol intake remains, together with psychological therapy and counseling sessions. The road to recovery may take some time, and everything will depend on the will of the person to stop.



An Overview Of Internet Addiction



In every progress comes a consequence.

We are referring to the digital advancements, specifically the use of the internet, and the adverse effects it brings to our younger generation. Reports on the impact of neurological problems, psychological disorder, and social concerns have busted the lives of teenagers with Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) (Weinstein et al. 2010). Despite these claims, there is still a deliberation on whether the behavior is considered a mental health concern. In other countries such as China and South Korea, they identify internet addiction as significant public health thus initiative and strategies are placed to regulate and control internet usage.

Then again, the disagreement about the value of internet addiction, most of the medical and mental health professionals believe that internet addiction is a valid disorder and just like another addiction is worthy of much attention and concern (Cook, 2017).

To derive with medical jargon, various terms have been linked to internet addiction – “problematic internet use” (PIU) and “internet addiction disorder” (IAD) (Cook, 2017).

From the terms mentioned above, one can objectively align where the problem is. An average person will use the internet for business, school, or other personal reasons with a limited number or amount of time. The usage does not compromise the person’s other activities and relationships. A positive outcome would be that the internet was used as a tool to improve or enhance social relationships, business and work reasons, and personal improvement. Otherwise, if the effects are the opposite of these situations, then a psychological or behavioral problem exists.

By noting the times you feel tempted to indulge in an addiction, you can begin to bring more awareness to the situation. — Wendy Salazar, MFT

Clues to the Disorder



Since it is not an official psychiatric diagnosis, the following lists are obvious manifestations of persons believed to have an internet addiction.

  • Excessive use of the internet via computer, smartphone, or other digital tablets
  • Sleeping and eating problems brought about by continued internet browsing
  • Having some fear and anxiety when there is a disconnection to the internet such as:
    • Running out of battery
    • Loss of power or wi-fi connection
    • Forgetting the smartphone or gadget somewhere else
    • Feeling naked and incomplete if not holding a smartphone or any digital device Unable to attend to any social commitments
  • Feeling edgy and irritable-if cannot check social media accounts

The process of recognizing there is a problem; increasing motivation to take control; seeking support; and identifying the types of people, environments, and situations that will allow for recovery may, at times, seem impossible. — Deanna Richards, LMHC


Once this is official, the treatment for internet addiction will somehow be like that of other addiction problems. Talk therapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy is best viewed to treat addiction problems. The mind is re-trained to think and make correct decisions regarding some behaviors.



Internet detox is the modern term to discipline oneself from getting rid of internet addiction. Modification of usage is the ultimate goal since internet technology can be helpful in our daily lives. Once the person regains control of his internet time and reasons for using it, then he will be allowed to use any digital tool again.

Also known by various other terms like “digital detox,” “digital Sabbath,” and “unplugging”, the idea behind a digital fast is to voluntarily and deliberately stop using all connected devices – smartphones, computers, tablets, and so on – that plug you to the internet for a pre-specified amount of time. — Utpal Dholakia Ph.D.

Create a schedule and STICK TO IT! Your counselor or therapist will encourage you to develop a plan and schedule for internet usage. As they say, to plan is easy but to follow it will take extra effort and a continuous struggle.

This is not a race. Recovering from addiction problems is not an overnight thing. You will need support from families and friend as you go through this process. Be patient and follow your doctor’s orders.



Cook, S. (2017). Technology and internet addiction: How to recognize it and recover from itComparitech. Retrieved 22 February 2018, from